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in the middle east. elections are coming up. israel, jordan, egypt, iran, and elsewhere, we're seeing in front of our eyes more violent change happening in syria. the reverberations felt in every one of those country's borders. elsewhere from beirut to bahrain, it's a low boil, ready to burst out in a way that would affect our interests in very fundamental ways. there's two problems at the far end of the threat spectrum. the iran nuclear challenge on one hand and spread of al-qaeda and spread of terrorism on the other that will continue to dominate unless we forget within a year of taking office, both presidents obama and bush, his predecessor, were faced with previously unforeseen events that fundamentally challengedded their middle east policies. 9/11 for president bush, and the arab spring for president obama. there's a lot on the agenda. today, we're going to take an early look at what will be and what should be the foreign policy of a second obama administration in the middle east. now, we, at the washington institute, for us, this is just the beginning of a -- of quite a number of events
for example in egypt the brotherhood may be very reluctant on certain aspects of the security sector they're dealing with the military privileges of the military but other areas, for example, police, basic police reform and abuses and behavior of police i think my question and the brotherhood would be happy to see this corrected and improved, but that there is a perception within the brotherhood by many in the egyptian government institutions that if you were to address these issues it would result in its short term increase in crime and stability and they feel as though they can either fight crime effectively where they could address these kind of concerns which would be useful in the long term but detrimental in the short term and they would pay a heavy political price for the increase in crime on the basic security that would come with this reform. if you talk a little bit about that and also in tunisia i was there a couple of weeks ago, and one of the topics that came up quite a bit was the attacks on the u.s. embassy and while those of us here that might obviously highlight the need
#% of all the foreign aid that we do, a lot of money. israel, egypt, pakistan, iraq, and afghanistan. nothing wrong with that, but we have to work with our frens to the south. we put in 1.4, and with additional money, it's $1.9 billion. for every one dollar we help with mexico, they spend $13. they spend a lot of money on security. they got to -- we got to understand what they are doing. now, what we started off, we did the easy thing, buy them hell cometters, buying this, and e worked with george bush, and filed the first legislation before bush talked about the plan because i felt that strongly about helping mexico, but nevertheless, we worked together. we did the easy thing with mexico, the helicopters and the planes. the hard part is this is we got to start training or billing the capacity, the prison systems, the prosecutors, the policemen. we're working on it at the federal level, and they trained 36,000 police. i think they need 150,000 or more than that. we have to go into judges, train the judges, the prosecutors. did you know that a prosecutor here in the united states, if
identities. the fact that in egypt, the first thing they say is raise your head, you are an ejection, meaning be proud. so the question then is what happened? if this was true for a decade. there was nothing particularly unique about 2007 or 2011. whether there was a major economic crisis in egypt or tunisia. it was extraordinary and i don't think you can just blame it on economics. so the question is why didn't they do it before? i think we have the right answer. political sponsors have always assumed that it is not enough to have angry people to revolt. you have to organize and you have to get a lot of people through the streets and the government has to feel the heat. the fact you have a lot of angry people doesn't quite make it. governments understood that you can can't get people to the streets about organizing. the outline political parties. they kept tabs on social institutions. they put leaders in prison that challenge them. and they were under control. that is why some people are with us for the long haul. what happened over the last couple of years, we have been watching for a decad
. they are interesting. see the list of countries that it was really at it in. iran, syria, lebanon, saudi arabia, egypt. sometimes it is called viper. a little bit confusing because they often times see things get kind of melted into each other. like you know, a very interesting whole incident. the size and sophistication of this was so great that i think the conclusion is clear that it was a government that was doing this. it is just unfathomable that it could then a smaller kind of scale operation. i think one of my colleagues is going to talk about estonia a little bit more, too. in 2007, estonia removed a statue, a soviet era statute and it caused turmoil between estonia and russia and lo and behold if it didn't become a lot of cyberattacks on mr. linea shutting down their telephone networks commissioning down their banking systems, websites and so on. government services and so on. it was never proven of his russia doing it, but the conclusion is that the very least of his russian hackers. in the end, nato, who is very active in helping estonia understand this, nato step dad and ultimately there's
that the spring is beneficial, we see that in egypt, this is not necessarily the case. the muslim brotherhood in egypt, the sunni islam that party with different views of regional policy. the egyptian president was in tehran recently for the non-aligned movement meeting and there is a lot of worry at him going to tehran would indicate that iran was isolated as the u.s. had imagined it to be or wanted it to be. more see meeting with iran officials indicated iran is an important regional player. of course what did morrissey during undreamed due? he criticized the regime of bashar al-assad and implicitly criticized the regime for his support of syria. this was an embarrassment for the iranian leadership, to the point that they change translation on television. he criticized syria and every man television set by rain. so trying to save face basically. but we've seen that egypt is not necessarily going to follow iran's policies in the region. in fact, the egyptians have kept their distance from tehran. they have not resumed relations in this a lot of tension in some issues. in addition, turkey eme
spring including the ongoing syrian civil war and the challenges facing egypt after its revolution. >> later today, singers and musicians roger daltrey and pete townsend of the who will be at the national press club to talk about the program they co-founded to help improve the lives of teenagers and young adults with cancer. they'll also discuss their plans for a new initiative called teen cancer america. it aims to set up hospitals and medical centers in the strategic areas across the country. see their remarks live beginning at 1 p.m. eastern over on c-span. >> you're watching c-span2 with politics and public atears. weak dies fee you are -- weekdays featuring live coverage of the senate and every weekend the latest nonfiction authors and books on booktv. you can see past programs and get our schedule at our web site, and you can join in the conversation on social media sites. >> former national security adviser stephen hadley was among the speakers at a recent conference focusing on national security challenges facing the united states. he said the top priority should be getting
us back to the middle east that we used the to know the arabs and israelis going at it and egypt being -- [inaudible] but right before that iran saw its fortunes decline, its popularity in the arab streets declined because of the arab spring, and then the syrian situation introduced a very, very important element, almost sectarian element, that eroded iranian influence in the region and the projection of iranian power hit a brick wall with that. so all of this, of course, goes into the mix of what iran is thinking. and this is one of the reasons. this is a good time to start negotiating with iran as its reach in the middle east seems to be not what it used to be, it's not as soft power, superpower, nor is it a hard power superpower in the renal payoff the situation -- in the region because of the situation in lebanon and syria. p lebanon is really the coming disaster, and syria is the disaster that we're dealing with right now. so, of course, all of this will go on. and if i were american, i would say this is exactly the right time to go into this. the presidential elections are
've had three years. it a dramatic circumstances in egypt and libya and tunisia. they are working on syria. you could point to example in bahrain, for example, not moving as fast. but is pretty difficult to flip the switch and light change every country in a matter of days. part of the obama philosophy, which is very interesting is trying to find what is pragmatically possible in this area that does not get america can't in the trap of unnecessary war, and quite my. so you these two examples of each ability which are most striking. here you have in egypt, you know, people on the streets clearly in opposition to the dictator there. there are plenty of examples, for example, was senior, a wink and a nod trying to crack down team and. bush junior, a wink and a nod to crack down there. around the '50s of course, lots of examples where we tell folks, bush senior in iraq killing saddam if you want to crack down on the sheet, so be it, will not get involved. that's the typical which can do. for bush to go to my work and say you do get political governor, you don't get the crackdown. you are not g
of the next 10 years. judith came across one day this thing called the egypt influence network, a depiction around the time that mubarak fell. and if you google it, it is this blog of blue, red and purple circles. the blue are people treating in english. the red people in arabic, those in both languages come in the google executive is right in the heart of this. so having become one of the state department's more avid twitter is, i do fair number of followers including the middle east that if you look at the map, i was often the fringe. i was on the map, but not really in the middle of the conversation. that is the challenge is the technology does provide the opportunity to get in the middle of a conversation and probably the good news is the evolution from which happened under judas watched of the center for strategic counterterrorism communication, with a purposely go in and insert themselves into extreme chat rooms to generate a debate and to try to change, for lack of a better term, hearts and minds, or engage in the competition judith was talking about. so there is an opportunity here,
profound effect. to explain how, let me take a detour into the air by spring. in egypt last year when the government shutdown the internet and shut down global service, many asked how are they able to do that. what does it mean that they can do that. it's a very important question. but let me focus on another important question that few people asked. how did egypt, to have an internet and a mobile service worth shutting down? the short answer lies in the most important policy accomplishments of the clinton administration that most people, present company excluded, have never heard of. world trade organization agreement on basic telecommunications. back in the 1990s, monopolies operated communication networks in most countries around the world, generally government owned or controlled monopolies. that was the world most of us grew up in. it was before the internet and mobile communications took off, and it's not a coincidence at the end of that world coincided with a take off of mobile and the internet. in any event back then in the '90s, leaders at the white house, at the state depart
proactive and extending aid to egypt before and after morsi was elected, and i think it's important to understand what sort of things egypt needed right away was an ability to sell government bonds and treasury bills were because it takes about 14% interest which is pretty high for a government come and immediate deaths things look terrible. they came in and said okay. we will buy your one month issue of bills. a good payment unless the government defaults on everything. but that has helped relieve some of the interest pressure and try to move egypt out of the debt trap than greece or italy or spain. the second thing they have done is like the development bank there's quite good development banks that help identify the investment projects, make sure they are built without corruption and that they become effective. i think it is $4.5 billion that were qatar and saudi arabia have and christine was out there in september and they were working on a long program, very low interest rate and there would be another four and a half million or so but then egypt has a fighting chance to get an
in 2011 with the upheavily of the arab spring. what happened? egypt what was that the pyramid, the traditional model of power got inverted. the people of the top got up ended and the base had the say. the arab spring is ongoing and messing and dangerously in some geography. what i'm talk abouting is bigger than egypt or any place else. it it's a massive shift. it's one of the moment in a hundred years, the real historians like those of georgetown will write about. the phenomena in the history books. the base of the pyramid, the 99% is taking more control. the institution that always governed our lives, church, state, mainstream media, music industry, are being by passed and weak end and seriously tested. people are holding them to account u.s. to account demanding that they be more open. more responsive. more effective or else here in the u.s., you have a tea party hammering big government. you had occupy to do the same to the gally rankers of wall street. social movement are competing. and we have to hope that the more enlightened ones will win the day. social movements like
the word egypt and they got a totally different responses. why? because there is a process going on every time that we search for something on our laptop we are not only gathering information, we are giving information about what we buy about what we find interesting, about what we like it, perhaps with our political biases may be said that in theory a search engine would be giving me objective information and you and i ought to get the same information if we tied in the same word, not so anymore. that's kind of scary. >> because somebody is making up in their mind as to what it is that we want. >> it is a series. it is the computer. what is the word i'm looking for all or a -- algorithm. thank you. >> algorithm is fine, and by understand that it exists, and i respect and i will salute it. it's there. but i want to know what all of that has to do with journalism. who gets up in the morning and covers something? who is going to go out and cover the war? who is going to cover the campaign? without the journalist being there doing the abc information gathering, honest information gathering,
between egypt and yemen. i think we know that saudi arabia had mixed feelings about how quickly mubarak was dumped, and -- but they also, the saudis playeded a crucial role of easing yemen. it was not easy. it was slow. it was bloody, but compared to the other changes, it was not that bad. in april of to 20* -- 2011, just as the arab spring was in full bloom, if you will, the c7 finance ministers met in france and formed a partnership with the vision that was simple that europe had been through this kind of thing before. after eastern europe broke away
of them. the idea in egypt, for example, is one of those initiatives. they have the american development bank to work on migration and development issues. so what are the implications for latin america in this context? one of them is that there is the recognition and latin america that seems to be an alignment over immigration. whatever that means to latin america, there is at least an understand common interest the second issue, some central america issues see this as an opportunity for cooperation. of course the question is not corporation, but perhaps a range of other issues where we can talk in here come the third issue, which is an opportunity to bring up agenda issues in the relationship between the u.s. and mexican and central american issues here that they have to deal with labor rights, human rights of migrants but also development issues and to cooperate in immigration reform that can have an effect on the legalization of immigrants in the united states. it may have to do also with dealing with some people on tbs. for the most part, this is both in the united states have not am
your mother would be gone for years. she came to the u.s. in egypt even know it. >> guest: she's still like that in a way, you know, where she does things that we don't fit into the equation sometimes. and it's been a struggle to get her to be a little more motherly. i think at this point we've come to expect that's the way she is and we just take her as she is. i think it helps because we're not disappointed. i do hope we could be a better grandmother. i know my great-grandmother, my mother said she wasn't such a great mother. but to ask him if she was the most wonderful grandmother in the world. so i'm hoping that's the way my children feel for her as well. that's all i want for my kids have a good relationship. >> host: reyna grandecan assume other mother to read this book, or does she know within a? >> guest: she hasn't read the book is it's in english and my mother does not speak english. she knows some of us in it because i told her this is the story about my childhood and growing up in the u.s. and i write about you, my dad, but i don't think my mother really understand about ho
Search Results 0 to 16 of about 17